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"Polish poster of the 19th-20th centuries" at the Pushkin Museum

In the Pushkin Museum to them. Pushkin opened an exhibition of Polish posters of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries from the archives of the museum. The exposition includes more than a hundred works of the heyday of an advertising poster in Poland, created by the creative associations Sztuka and Young Poland, Stanislav Noakovsky and Stanislav Ostoi-Hrostovsky and other Polish artists and illustrators of the early XX century.

The first thing that catches your eye on all Polish posters is the incredible layering of images and metaphors, the origins of which must be sought in Polish folk legends and national music. The second is the easy and indestructible influence of art nouveau, French street advertising: almost all the major Polish artists of that time studied in Europe, mainly in France, Germany and England, where bright, high-quality street advertising came into fashion a little earlier. Thus, French and English symbolism, the deep attention of artists to their native traditions, as well as the streamlined printing process in Krakow and Lviv for centuries, prepared the birth of a grand Polish poster.

The main function of the posters was advertising: they called for fairs, invited them to shops, to performances, talked about newspapers and new publications. They were printed by lithography, and since the local Academy of Fine Arts approved this activity, a craze for the poster began. The old advertising graphics of Krakow, Vilnius, Lviv and Warsaw are the best annals of the Polish people on the eve of change: Poland began the struggle for independence from the Russian Empire, a national democratic party appeared and the first revolutionary outbreaks began. Therefore, lyrics and satire coexist on the same poster, personifying the time of contradictions.




SZTUKA

A modernist partnership of Polish artists Sztuka was organized by professors from the Cracow School of Fine Arts in 1897. Sztuka's goal was to establish new forms in art and promote a new style, that is, a professional poster, through regular exhibitions. The partnership took the first steps under the leadership of Theodor Aksentovich. In 1898-1900, he successfully modeled exhibitions using spectacular female images in the exhibition. Over time, many talented Polish painters of that time joined the community: representatives of the Zakopane style Jozef Mekhoffer and Kazimierz Brzozowski, Karol Frych, Kazimierz Sihulsky, Vitold Wojtkevich, Anthony Protsaylovich (authors of the Melpomene Album, 1904, dedicated to the national theater), Jan Stanis , Stanislav Vyspiansky, Jozef Chelmonsky, Jacek Malchevsky, Julian Falat, Leon Vyszolkovsky, Ferdinand Ruschits and others.

Theodor Aksentovich(1859-1938)

Polish artist of Armenian descent, born in Hungary. Graduate of the Munich Academy. He gained fame as a portrait painter and chronicler of the life of the Carpathian Hutsuls. In 1897 he founded a conservatory for women. In 1910 he became rector of the Krakow Academy of Arts. One of the streets in Krakow was named after him and a commemorative coin of 100 drams was issued in Armenia. Aksentovich was one of the founders of the Sztuka art society (which means “art”) and played a crucial role in the development of the Polish poster.

YOUNG POLAND

The compositions of Karol Fryc, Henrik Uzemblo, Jozef Mehoffer were connected with the idea of ​​Polish independence and national revival. The activity of the group dates back to the most revolutionary Polish times.

Jozef Mehoffer(1869-1946)

An artist, graphic artist, stained glass artist, lithographer, one of the most active activists of the Young Poland movement. He studied in Paris for five years. He came up with brands and trademarks, designed books, magazines, theater furniture. Created the prerequisites for the formation of Polish modernism. Like Theodor Aksentovich, stood at the origins of the Sztuka partnership.

IRINA NIKIFOROVA

Head of the department of art of the XIX-XX centuries. The Pushkin Museum to them. A. S. Pushkina, curator of the exhibition
 
"This exhibition is a kind of first publication. It is part of a large project that the museum planned ten years ago when it began to collaborate with the poster fund. The poster is a mirror of life, it clearly reflects the mentality of the people, the character, the economy of the country that they wore, ate and Keeping it is a laborious affair: as a rule, the cheapest paper, such as cellulose, went under the posters, since the relevance of the street poster was a couple of weeks.Professional artists began to be involved in the creation of posters only at the end of the 19th century. And all of Europe froze. Art took to the streets. In the cities of Poland, this art appeared in the nineties of the XIX century. The cradle of the poster is the free city of Krakow. The first Polish posters were not much different from French and English. But soon they became radically different directions. The reserved English had national values ​​- family, king and transport, and Poland at that time was already torn apart as a hundred years. Therefore, the Polish poster acted as a propaganda of national, national culture. Whatever he was about: an advertisement for cigarettes or shoes - he still spoke of his own, national, relevant. Thus, the legendary Polish poster of the fifties and sixties of the XX century did not appear from scratch: it was based on the posters of the turn of the XIX-XX century, which we are now showing.As a keeper, I tell you a secret: when you open the folder with posters, the material immediately starts screaming, screaming, calling ... It's such a stream of emotions that it's just criminal to keep it locked up! "

"Polish poster of the 19th-20th centuries from the collection of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. A. Pushkin"December 20, 2011 - February 16, 2012The Pushkin Museum to them. A.S. Pushkin, Art Gallery of Europe and America of the 19th-20th Centuries."Kropotkinskaya", st. Little Wolf, 14Entrance: from 150 rubles

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